In Turkiye it is a real problem deformation in driver-vehicle-road systems which happens through traffic jam and accidents.Drivers faulties in accidents is more than 90%. For this reason education is very important. Active security contains driving security, security according to conditions, security according to feelings and usage security. Passive security consists deformation in vehicle body , outer shapes, surface smooth, guard system,steering wheel system ,saving from fire.
The main aim of highway carrying system is , carry humans , loads and animals from some where to another surely.But traffic accidents are the real problems in our country and around the world.
Traffic accidents are the events which done by the acted vehicles in traffic and ends with injuries or deaths. So vehicle designers works on protective measures which prevent people in accidents or decrease the injury rates.
2 TRAFFIC SECURITY
It is the subject which icludes enviroment , vehicle and people interactions , problems and formulas.
Some important factors are ; geometry of road , quality and after care of production,usabilities of crossings,places of traffic control signs, drivers performance and vehicle design.
Probably reasons of accidents are the lack of education, not to be unconscious of faced risks , exhaustion ,carelessness ,etc. With the education it is possible to decrease the rate of accidents
- According to discoveries in techonolgy , enchanges in performance , fuel economy, security, reliability etc.
- Enchanges in electronic , alternative materials,new experiments etc.
- Short or long term cracks for congestions in highways , increasing air pollution in cities etc
Auto firms works on production of more comfortable and more secure vehicles. Drivers must have facilities like perception ,engine,comment etc. Road conditions are effect the vehicle designs. In additional to this social , legal ,economic conditions effect the vehicle designs.
Nearly every vehicle has ABS, ROPS(Roll Over Protection System), air bags , safety belts , forced ceilings , bumbers, pedals, headrests, comfortable seats , steel honky tonks , lateral protectors. These are results of searceh for safety drivings which used.
There are two security equipments in vehicles like active securty and passive security.
2.3.1 ACTIVE SECURITY
Active security includes; brake and drive facilities of vehicle , disclosure systems. Decrease the rate of accidentsis possible with increase the number of active security equipments in vehicles. Active security equipments is the security equipments which step in before accident for saving from accident.
22.214.171.124 Drive Security
It is the result of harmonic suspension designs according to wheel suspension,to move up and down braking facilities. It shows the most economic dynamic vehicle behaviour.
In general using service brakes are used for slow down or stopped in secure conditions. They must stopped the vehicle in the emergency times in the minimum time and distances.Today ın modern vehicles ABS brake system si used for this. When two fron wheels begin to slide ABS system brake them and decrease the slide level to minimum.
126.96.36.199 Security according to Conditions
It is the important factor in decreasing the wrong maneuver rate in traffic further more vibration , noisy and climate conditions.
Seats are designed like felt the driving exhaustion in minimum level.
Noisies in or sides of vehicle take root from inner sorces (engine ,axles etc) or outer resources ( wheels or wind noises) and transfer with the air or vehicle structure
Today in modern vehicles using by air conditioner systems bad effects of hot air pressure and wetness are decrease.
188.8.131.52 Security according to sense
For getting better of security according to sense some works are done as listed above:
- Lightening and illuminated warnings equipments ,
- audible warning equipments ,
- direct or indirect vision .
Head lights , signals , brake lamps ,fog lamps ,parking lamps and windshiel wiper and audible warning equipments must be consonant to standarts.
184.108.40.206 Usage Security
It is possible to decrease the drivrs stress level and supply safety drivings with the design of control equipments and command of vehicle easily.
The newest work of safety driving is "optical radar systems for vehicles". An optical radar system for vehicles has a stationary receiver and a transmitter which scans the road surface ahead of the vehicle, the scan area being shifted in accordance with the direction of steering of the vehicle. The scan area is covered by periodically sweeping a narrow-beam pulse laser through the designated scan area and monitoring the return lag of pulses reflected by objects in the scan area. The scan area is centered over the longitudinal axis of the vehicle while the latter is moving straight ahead. The axis of the scan area is shifted in proportion to the orientation of the steering wheel of the vehicle.
2.3.2 PASSIVE SECURITY
All the structural and design facilities for decreasing the bad rsults of an accidents
220.127.116.11 Outer Security
All the design facilities of vehicles for decrease the rate of injuries when hit the pedestrians and cycle riders.Factors;
- Deformation of vehicle structure
- Out design of vehicle
The serious injuries happened when to hit from front side to pedestrains .For prevent this some new design speicialities are applied to vehicles :
- Movable front head lights .
- windshield wiper which can be under cover ,
- Under cover rain ruts ,
- Under cover door handle ,
- Pliable rear view mirror ,
- Flexible bumbers .
In commercial vehicles , additional to front and back guarding equipments also lateral guarding aquipments are added as shown picture 2
18.104.22.168 Inner security
Inner security means that to prevent the drivers and passengers in the accidents and supply to get out from vehicle after accident safetly . Some factors which affects passengers are :
- Deformation in vehicle structure,
- Resistance of passenger cabin
- Coaction system ,
- Crash parts (inner of vehicle) ,
- Steering wheel system ,
- Saving of people who are in the vehicle ,
- Defence from fie .
Safety belts importance are proved. But its improvemnt is not finished. In classical safety belts are run by the users.In picture 3 automatic systems are showned which be active by itself. Its working system are also shown in picture 4. Safety belts should be tied and opened with one hand easily.
Picture 3 Safety belt with front tight(11)
Picture 4 System of Safety belt with front tight(12)
Seat weight sensors add to vehicles for remedy defects. These sensors supply not to working of air bags for poppets and and childrens who are heavier than 30 kilos. For the effects of air bag , correct usage of safety belts and crash force must be searched.
Usage of air bag and safety belt together or alone decrease the injury rates. With air bag 18% with safety belt 42 % and with together 46% of injury rates decrease.
In new model of vehicles lateral air bags or protective side air coverings which can be billowed (as shown picture5 ) are used. Lateral air bags are designed like to prevent riskks of tigtenedthe passengers or drivers arm between air bag and door.
Picture 5 Protective side air covering
Headrests are used for decrease the level of head - neck injuries. Active headrests are used by Opel for decrease the level of injuries.
Picture 6Active headrests
22.214.171.124 Deformation in Vehicle Structure
Some legal arrangements are done by Ameirca in 1966. The most known is not to injure of passengers in by the crashed of 48.3km/h. Crashed tests and some circumstance are shown in below:
- criterion of head is resticted with the acceleration of HIC (HIC - Head Injury Criterion)< 1000 m/s2
- criterion of chest injury: Maximum acceleration of rib cage is : 60 g/3ms
- criterion of leg injury: power which effects hip is 10 kN
- Other general circumstances are :
- There will be limited leakage in fuel depot,
- Doors must not be opened during crash
- After the crash doors canbe opened enough ,
- Vehicles part can not be entered to area which is protective by front window ,
- Lateral slide quantitiy of steering wheel can be < 10 cm ,
- Doors which are in passenger area can not be opened,
- There is not be any humiliated in vital volume sizes.
Picture 7 Deformation as accordion shape
Pedal release system (PRS) is used for decrease the leg injuries and impressions in foots in drivers which occurs in coming crashed.
To minimize the burnt risks after accident front deformation metal sheet is used for prevent of fuel tank.
Traffic security is many sided topic. In our country 97.3% of an accidents happened for the personal faults of drivers in 1997. The main problem is lack in education. crashes ends in very short times but coming out energy is very big. It is an obligatory to have and use of safety belt and air bags in vehicles. Rate of injuries is decrease 18% with air bag usage , 42% with safety belt usage and 46% with both of them usage.
Accident force is concerned with the vehicle speed. So every driver must obey the speed rules.
Vehicles designers and producers work on new systems and designs for decrease yhe injury rates and drivers fault.But the most important thing is education of drivers.